# Acidity, Effect of Substituents on Acidity and Important Reactions of Benzoic Acid : Pharmaguideline

Due to the electronegativity of the oxygen atom, this functional group undergoes ionization and discharges a proton. It forms a more stable anion as it stabilizes by the presence of two oxygen atoms. The negative charge in the phenoxide anion is stabilised by delocalisation to the aromatic ring, whilst there is no conjugate base stabilisation in methanol. We have learnt from basic structural organic chemistry that resonance can greatly stabilise charged species. Because the acidity of organic compounds is influenced by the stability of charged species, resonance plays an important role in determining the acidity of various compounds.

So, if the electron-donating groups are substituted on phenol, resultantly, its acidity reduces. On the other hand, NH2 is electron donating , along with alkoxy groups (-OR). Electron donating groups generally have a lone pair on the atom directly bonded to the aromatic ring.

If the positive charge can’t properly balance the negative charge, the resonance structures involving charge separation are not advantageous to exist and so the strength of the acid decreases. Deactivating substituents, such a nitro group (-NO2), in the ortho or meta position remove electron density from the aromatic ring, and also from the carboxylate anion. This stabilizes the negative charge of the conjugate base, increasing the acidity of the carboxylic acid. Notice that the methoxy group increases the pKa of the phenol group – it makes it less acidic. At first inspection, you might assume that the methoxy substituent, with its electronegative oxygen, would be an electron-withdrawing group by induction.

• The negative charge of the conjugate base is stabilised better as the s character increases.
• In solvents that are less good in stabilising anionic conjugate base, acids are less acidic.
• We get stronger acids as we go from sp3 to sp2 to sp hybridisations.
• The important part of this discussion revolves around the last 4 resonance structures.

In the absence of solvent, it is hard to separate a positive charge from a negative charge . This separation is greatly assisted by solvent; the solvent molecules orient themselves around the solute, separating the oppositely charged species. Multiplier effects compound the inductive effect, which increases the acidity of carboxylic acids. Dichloroacetic acid is a weaker acid than chloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid. An electron donating group essentially destabilizes the conjugate base of the acid, because of which this phenomenon occurs. Your explanation speaks of the carbocation formed in some resonance structures which has a double negative charge and a single positive charge.

## Chapter 8: Delocalized Electrons and Their Effect on Stability, Reactivity, and pKa

Deprotonation of α-hydrogens results in the formation of carbanion, called the α-carbanion. Larger number of methyl groups increases the electron density near the acidic H and therefore making the alcohol less acidic. This causes the t-butanol to have to largest pKa value in the series above. Because of this, the overall stability of the conjugate base is lower than in case of no electron donating group. Overall, the presence of a EDG in ortho or para destabilises the actual negative charge of the benzoate anion, thus making it less stable.

### What is the effect of electron withdrawing groups on the acidity carboxylic acid?

As, the electron withdrawing groups attract electrons away from other elements. So, such groups help in increasing the polarity of the $-\text$ group. We know that oxygen is an electronegative group, so, the $-\text$ bond of $-\text$ group will be polar or ionizable.

NH2 has a free electron pair which it can “donate” to form bonds. Chlorine withdraws electrons through inductive effect and releases electrons through resonance. Hence, chlorine is ortho, para-directing in electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Looking at the conjugate base of phenol, we see that the negative charge can be delocalized by resonance to three different carbons on the aromatic ring.

Is known as the electron-withdrawing inductive effect, also known as the ‘–I effect‘. Let’s compare the acidity between ethane , ethylene , and acetylene . The relative positions of groups on the ring determines how much they can interact with each other. Comments shall be published after review.Spams/ Promotional links are not allowed and shall be deleted upon review.You can ask questions related to this post here.

Encompass all molecules with a carboxylic acid-derived carbonyl, including carboxylic acids, amides, esters, anhydrides, and others. A reducing agent typically is in one of its lower possible oxidation states and is known as the electron donor. Examples of reducing agents include the earth metals, formic acid, oxalic acid, and sulfite compounds. Alkyl substituents (e.g. -CH3, -CH2CH3) are also electron donating groups – they activate the aromatic ring by increasing the electron density on the ring through an inductive donating effect.

Through resonance, EWGs increases the acidity of a compound and EDGs decreases the acidity. As the number of chlorine atom increases, the inductive effect becomes stronger. Hence, trichloroacetic acid is a stronger acid than dichloroacetic acid, which in turn is a stronger acid than chloroacetic acid. All of them are more acidic compared to unsubstituted acetic acid. In the section above, we saw how electronegativity affects the acidity of the H+ directly bonded to the electronegative atom. Here, we shall see that an electronegative functional group can also affect the acidity of a H+ that is several bonds away from itself.

If the carboxylate anion can be stabilised, the carboxylic acid gets stronger. Inductive effect – what is the electronegativity of other atoms in the molecule. Atoms that are more electronegative will ‘pull’ electrons, making them more delocalized, stabilizing the base.