Protein S Deficiency NORD National Organization for Rare Disorders
We reviewed the results of vitamin B12 tests which were ordered for patients at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University between 1st of January- 30thof December 2012. You may need this test if you have an unexplained blood clot or a family history of blood clots. A lack of this protein or a problem with the function of this protein may cause blood clots to form in veins.
You can be exposed to malaria through travel and travel in some areas can sometimes defer donors. If you have traveled outside of the United States and Canada, your travel destinations will be reviewed at the time of donation. A tattoo is acceptable if the tattoo was applied by a state-regulated entity using sterile needles and ink that is not reused.
If you ever received a transplant of animal organs or of living animal tissue – you are not eligible to donate blood. Non-living animal tissues such as bone, tendon, or heart valves are acceptable. In almost all cases, medications will not disqualify you as a blood donor. Your eligibility will be based on the reason that the medication was prescribed. As long as the condition is under control and you are healthy, blood donation is usually permitted. Discuss your particular situation with the health historian at the time of donation.
Females of childbearing age who want to get pregnant should consult with a hematologist first and be closely followed by a hematology nurse practitioner if she decides to conceive. These patients are initially first managed by a hematologist and then followed up by the primary care provider or nurse practitioner. Diagnostic testing for protein S deficiency is performed using functional assays, including clotting assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine levels of protein S activity.
During blood donation of just one pint, you could leave having burned up to 650 calories as noted in a 2020 EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care article. However, if you’re looking to lose weight, burning calories during a blood donation is not a substitute for burning calories from physical activity. If you’re looking to lose pounds more effectively, you’ll want to start with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ‘s recommended moderate exercise time of 150 minutes per week. Of note, the number of calories you burn will depend on a few factors such as your weight and the intensity of the exercise you are doing. Additionally, the American Red Cross noted that someone needs blood every two seconds, and one donation can help save multiple lives.
You may also need this test if one of your parents has a protein S deficiency, since the condition can be inherited. If you don’t have enough protein S in your blood, you have a condition called a protein S deficiency. In order to protect both the donor and the recipient, each donation is screened for a range of disease markers. Anemia occurs when someone lacks enough hemoglobin to carry adequate amounts of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues throughout the body.
This serves to concentrate the PS/aPC complex at the site of thrombus formation where it regulates the coagulation process by enzymatically neutralizing activated factors Va and VIIIa. After thrombin proteolysis, PS retains its affinity for phospholipids, but loses its anticoagulant function as the cofactor for aPC. The information on this site should not be used as a substitute for professional medical care or advice.
However, some people with celiac disease don’t absorb enough iron because their small intestines are damaged. Therefore, they can’t make enough hemoglobin, and their low hemoglobin shows up in the hemoglobin test conducted before a blood donation center will let you donate. Low blood iron levels and fatigue are symptoms of MS. Some people have been diagnosed with MS after regular blood donations. When you lose fluids during the blood donation process, your blood pressure can drop, leading to dizziness. The American Red Cross recommends drinking an extra 16 ounces, or 2 cups, of water before donating blood.
Furthermore, extended periods of anticoagulation treatment with warfarin can lead to an increased risk of bleeding. Individuals with low blood volumes may not tolerate the removal of the required volume of blood given with whole blood donation. There is no upper weight limit as long as your weight is not higher than the weight limit of the donor bed/lounge you are using.
Approximately half of these recurrent VTE episodes occur in the absence of common risk factors for thrombosis. Thrombosis before the age of 55 years or recurrent thrombosis is indicative of an inherited thrombophilic state like protein S deficiency. Anticoagulant therapy is the use of drugs like heparin, warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants that thin the blood and make it harder for the blood to clot. Some individuals with protein S deficiency may remain on this therapy for life.
In this article let’s understand the basics of blood donation for all those who have had COVID-19.
If you donate often, the Red Cross recommends you consider taking a multivitamin with iron or an iron supplement. Multivitamins and supplements are available over-the-counter, but you should discuss with your health-care provider before taking them. Protein S deficiency is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one altered copy of the PROS1 gene in each cell is sufficient to cause mild protein S deficiency. Individuals who inherit two altered copies of this gene in each cell have severe protein S deficiency.
Protein S deficiency increases your risk for blood clots, including a serious condition called deep vein thrombosis . DVT causes dangerous blood clots to form in your arms or legs. These blood clots may travel all over the body and settle in your lungs. Healthcare providers use the term venous thromboembolism to describe the 2 conditions, DVT and PE.
How does protein S deficiency affect my body?
Initial heparin treatment may be with intravenous unfractionated heparin or subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin . Heparin should be given for a minimum of five days followed by vitamin K antagonist , or direct oral anticoagulant . The choice between a DOAC and VKA depends on patient preference and convenience. In the past, VKA was the drug of choice for VTE but with the advent of DOACs, it has changed. DOACs are now increasingly used for VTE due to their efficacy and safety profile. Anticoagulants in common use include heparin, warfarin, rivaroxaban, apixaban and dabigatran.
After donating blood, you’ll be asked to wait in the refreshments area for 10 to 15 minutes to make sure you’re feeling OK. If you’re donating blood platelets — which is a different process than donating whole, or regular, blood — your system must be aspirin-free for 48 hours prior to donation. Although heme iron will raise your iron levels more effectively, vitamin C can help your body better absorb plant-based iron, or nonheme iron. Read on to learn what you should eat and drink before donating blood, plus learn tips for things you can do after you donate.
Purpura fulminans is characterized by the formation of blood clots within small blood vessels throughout the body. These blood clots disrupt normal blood flow and can lead to death of body tissue . Widespread blood clotting uses up all available blood clotting proteins. As a result, abnormal bleeding occurs in various parts of the body and is often noticeable as large, purple skin lesions. Individuals who survive the newborn period may experience recurrent episodes of purpura fulminans.
If you are donating at a blood bank other than the NIH Blood Bank, contact that bank with any questions regarding your eligibility. During pregnancy, patients in the first trimester or after 36 weeks, should be treated with low-molecular-weight heparin rather than warfarin, to reduce the risk of fetal and maternal bleeding. Learn how blood donations help those affected by Sickle Cell Disease.
However, when it comes to donating blood post-COVID recovery, here’s what you need to keep in mind. There are varying timelines for when you can or cannot donate blood with STDs. When in doubt, reach out to your local blood bank and ask for their specific guidelines. You should not donate blood if you suspect you may have human immunodeficiency virus , acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , human T-lymphotropic virus , or hepatitis. Protein S works along with another protein in the blood, called protein C, to help your blood clot normally.
Complications can include skin reactions or general illness related to the exposure. Complications can include skin reactions beyond the vaccination site or general illness related to the vaccination. If you know you have protein S deficiency, you can get peace of mind from knowing the symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis and a pulmonary embolism. You can empower yourself and your loved ones by knowing what to watch for and what to do if these symptoms develop. If your provider gives you a prescription for a blood thinner, be sure to take the exact amount they tell you to take.
The exact risk of a blood clot, the age of onset of the disease, the severity of the disease, and the number and frequency and location of blood clots will vary greatly among affected individuals. This is due, in part, to the amount of residual protein S activity there is in the body. Some individuals with protein S deficiency due to inheritance of a single abnormal protein S gene may never develop a blood clot and others may not develop one until adulthood. In severe cases of protein S deficiency, infants develop a life-threatening blood clotting disorder called purpura fulminans soon after birth.
Protein levels are often included as part of a comprehensive metabolic panel, a blood test ordered by doctors as part of an overall examination. The health provider collects a blood sample through a small needle inserted into a vein in your arm. A laboratory analyzes the blood sample to measure the amount of total protein in your body, among other items. Usually, the amount of total protein in your blood is relatively stable.
However, you must be off of aspirin for at least 2 full days in order to donate platelets by apheresis. For example, if you take aspirin products on Monday, the soonest you can donate platelets is Thursday. Donors with clotting disorder from Factor V who are not on anticoagulants are eligible to donate; however, all others must be evaluated by the health historian at the collection center. To ensure the safety of both patients and donors, these are some of the requirements donors must meet to be eligible to donate blood based on their donation type. To explore a list of eligibility information,Search by Keywordor Browse All. If you were born with a protein S deficiency, you can’t prevent it.
People who haven’t hit menopause yet may also find it hard to donate blood. "Pre-menopausal females can be somewhat iron depleted with blood counts just under the lower limit," Dr. DeChristopher explained. If you have low iron and you still want to be a donor, taking an oral iron supplement may help you re-qualify, Dr. DeChristopher added.
"As long as you are consciously getting enough protein from plant sources, you won’t be at any greater risk of protein deficiency, Stephenson says. However, protein deficiency is more prevalent in Americans over the age of 70, according to a 2019 study. Protein deficiency, also called hypoproteinemia, is usually tied to overall low protein intake.
If you contracted syphilis or gonorrhea, wait three months following completion of your treatment to donate blood. If you have chlamydia, HPV, or genital herpes, you can still donate blood if you meet the other eligibility requirements. In the presence of calcium, PS binds tightly to the phospholipid surfaces of endothelial cells and activated platelets.
And having too much iron is a serious issue, because excess iron gets deposited in various organs and tissues, causing damage. So, people taking iron supplements need to be careful not to overdose themselves. That’s usually pretty difficult to accomplish, but it is possible, so talk to your doctor before starting any new vitamin or supplement. Over-the-counter multivitamins usually contain a small amount of iron that’s well-tolerated, but it’s kind of an expensive way to build your levels back up.
Do I need to take iron tablets?
Another is to produce myoglobin, a protein that delivers oxygen to muscle fibers. In cases where someone was badly injured, like in a car accident, they may need a transfusion of red blood cells right away. But for most people, eating a diet of iron-rich foods is sufficient to rebuild their iron stores.
Factors influencing treatment decisions include the severity and frequency of blood clots, potential drug and dietary interactions, an individual’s personal preference, and age or overall health. Some individuals with a severe form of protein S deficiency may remain on this therapy for life. Special care must be taken if warfarin is used because of the risk of warfarin-induced skin necrosis. Individuals with mild protein S deficiency are at risk of a type of clot called a deep vein thrombosis that occurs in the deep veins of the arms or legs. If a DVT travels through the bloodstream and lodges in the lungs, it can cause a life-threatening clot known as a pulmonary embolism . Other factors can raise the risk of abnormal blood clots in people with mild protein S deficiency.
Considervolunteeringorhosting a blood drivethrough the Red Cross. You can also help people facing emergencies bymaking a financial donationto support the Red Cross’s greatest needs. Your gift enables the Red Cross to ensure an ongoing blood supply, provide humanitarian support to families in need and prepare communities by teaching lifesaving skills. HIV Prevention medications – Truvada , Descovy , Tivicay and Isentress and Isentress are given for exposure to HIV, you must wait 3 months after the last dose of medication to donate. Wait 3 years after living more than 5 years in a country or countries where malaria is found.